Refractive index database

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Optical constants of Bi4Ge3O12 (Bismuth germanate, BGO)
Williams et al. 1996: n 0.305–1.0 µm

Wavelength: µm

Complex refractive index (n+ik)[ i ]

n   k   LogX   LogY   eV

Derived optical constants

Dispersion formula [ i ]



P. A. Williams et al. Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic, and photoelastic properties of bismuth germanate Bi4Ge3O12, Appl. Opt. 35, 3562-3569 (1996)


[Expressions for n]   [CSV - comma separated]   [TXT - tab separated]   [Full database record]


Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO)

Bi4Ge3O12, commonly known as bismuth germanate (BGO), is a scintillation material that has found extensive use in medical imaging, high-energy physics, and radiation detection. Composed of bismuth, germanium, and oxygen, this compound is valued for its high atomic number, high density, and effective Z-value, which result in strong stopping power for high-energy radiation. In optical applications, BGO is often employed as a scintillator in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners and in various types of detectors for gamma and X-ray radiation. The crystal exhibits excellent scintillation properties, including good energy resolution and fast decay times. One of the key advantages of BGO over other scintillators is its non-hygroscopic nature, which makes it easier to handle and less sensitive to moisture. The material can be grown using techniques like the Bridgman or Czochralski methods, and can be doped with various activators to tailor its scintillation properties. Overall, BGO stands as a material of choice for high-performance radiation detection and imaging applications due to its robust scintillation performance and ease of handling.

Other name

  • Bismuth germanium oxide

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