Refractive index database

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Optical constants of LIQUIDS
Benzene (C6H6)

Wavelength: µm

Complex refractive index (n+ik)[ i ]

n   k   LogX   LogY   eV

Derived optical constants

Dispersion formula



300 K (27 °C).


K. Moutzouris, M. Papamichael, S. C. Betsis, I. Stavrakas, G. Hloupis and D. Triantis. Refractive, dispersive and thermo-optic properties of twelve organic solvents in the visible and near-infrared, Appl. Phys. B 116, 617-622 (2013)


[Expressions for n]   [CSV - comma separated]   [TXT - tab separated]   [Full database record]


Benzene, C6H6

Benzene (C6H6) is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell. It's an aromatic hydrocarbon, notable for its cyclic, planar structure which consists of a hexagonal ring of carbon atoms, with alternating double and single bonds, and with a hydrogen atom bonded to each carbon. Benzene is used as a starting material in the manufacture of a vast array of chemicals, including styrene (for making polystyrene), phenol, and aniline. Its ring structure serves as a basis for many other chemical compounds and is fundamental in organic chemistry. However, exposure to benzene has been linked to a number of health concerns, particularly leukemia, leading to restrictions on its industrial and commercial use in many countries.

Other names

  • Cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene
  • 1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene
  • Benzol
  • Phene

External links


Liquids play a unique and often underappreciated role in optical systems, offering a set of properties that can complement or replace those of solid materials like glass and crystals. With variable density, temperature-dependent refractive indices, and the ability to flow and fill spaces, liquids are employed in applications ranging from simple lenses to complex adaptive optical elements. Common types of optical liquids include oils, water, and specialty fluids engineered for high refractive index or low dispersion. Liquids are particularly useful in adjustable lenses, interferometers, and optical tweezers, as they allow for dynamic control of optical characteristics. Some advanced liquid systems, such as liquid crystals, can even undergo phase transitions that drastically change their optical behavior, making them valuable in display technologies and variable optical attenuators. It's worth noting that the optical properties of liquids, like refractive index and absorption, can vary significantly with temperature, pressure, and chemical composition, making calibration and environmental control crucial for precise applications. Liquids are also generally more susceptible to impurities and environmental factors like evaporation, requiring sealed or controlled systems for long-term reliability. Overall, liquids offer a versatile and dynamic set of options for optical engineers, providing opportunities for innovative solutions in both established and emerging optical technologies.

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